Chicago Manual Of Style Bibliography Template For Elementary

Chicago

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Entire Web Site

The Web site of the Library of Congress connects users to content areas created by the Library’s many experts. In some cases, content can be posted without a clear indication of author, title, publisher or copyright date. Look for available clues and give as much information as possible, including the URL and date accessed.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.237)

Structure:

  1. Author last name, first name, middle initial, if given. If no author, use the site owner.
  2. Title of Site (italicized); a subsection of a larger work in quotes.
  3. Editor of site, if given.
  4. Publication information, including latest update if available.
  5. Name of sponsoring institution or organization.
  6. Electronic address or URL.
  7. Date of access, in parenthesis.

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Site. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Sponsoring source. http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov (accessed January 5, 2006).

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Articles and Essays

Special presentations, articles, and essays include examples that illustrate collection themes. Many collections include specific items, such as timelines, family trees or scholarly essays, which are not primary source documents. Such content has been created to enhance understanding of the collection.

This timeline of the Wright Brothers can be found in The Wilbur and Orville Wright Papers at the Library of Congress.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given).
  2. Title of document (in italics).
  3. Format (special presentation).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date (if given).
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name (in italics). If no collection name, name of division where item is housed with no punctuation.
  6. Medium.
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bibliographic record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
The Wilbur and Orville Wright Timeline, 1867-1948. Special presentation. From the Library of Congress, The Wilbur and Orville Wright Papers. http://www.loc.gov/collection/wilbur-and-orville-wright-papers/about-this-collection/ (accessed January 10, 2006).

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Cartoons and Illustrations

Cartoons and illustrations included in newspapers, magazines or other periodicals often represent the historical perspectives and opinions of the time of publication. This illustration, Join or Die from the May 9, 1754 Pennsylvania Gazette, was published by Benjamin Franklin and expresses his views about the need for the colonies to join forces to confront their mutual concerns with England.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 8.207)

Structure:

  1. Author’s or creator’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given).
  2. Title of document (in italics); a subsection of a larger work in quotes.
  3. Format (cartoon or illustration).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date.
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name (in italics). If no collection name, name of division where item is housed with no punctuation.
  6. Medium.
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bibliographic record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Franklin, Benjamin. “Join or Die.” Illustration. The Pennsylvania Gazette, May 9, 1754. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division http://loc.gov/pictures/item/2002695523/ (accessed January 10, 2006).

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Films

Black-and-white actuality film collections from the turn of the century are included in the Library of Congress online collections.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.272)

Structure:

  1. Creator’s last name, first name, middle initial (or filmographer’s name if no director is specified, but indicate role).
  2. Title of film (in italics).
  3. Format (film, filmstrip, 35mm film).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date.
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name (in italics). If no collection name, name of division where item is housed with no punctuation.
  6. Medium.
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bibliographic record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Armitage, Frederick S., photographer. Bargain Day, Fourteenth Street, New York. 35 mm film. United States: American Mutoscope and Biograph Co, 1905. From Library of Congress, Early Motion Pictures, 1897-1920. MPEG video, http://www.loc.gov/item/00694373 (accessed January 9, 2006).

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Government Publications

Many government publications originate through executive departments, federal agencies, and the United States Congress. Many of the documents are chronicled records of government proceedings, which become part of the Congressional Record. These documents are often posted without a clear indication of author, title, publisher or copyright date. Look for available clues and give as much information as possible, including the URL and date accessed.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.295)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given).
  2. Title of document (subsection is placed in quotes, followed by title in italics).
  3. Format (omit if it is a printed page).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date (include as much information as possible such as page numbers).
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name (in italics). If no collection name, name of division where item is housed with no punctuation.
  6. Medium.
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bibliographic record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
“Proceedings December 17, 1792”. Annals of Congress. House of Representatives, 2nd Congress, 2nd Session. Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1849, pg. 747-748. From Library of Congress, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/
ampage?collId=llac&fileName=llac003.db&recNum=370 (accessed January 9, 2006).

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Manuscripts

The Library of Congress online collections include letters, diaries, recollections, and other written material. One example is this letter from Helen Keller to Mr. John Hitz. Helen describes her trip to Chicago to visit the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.222-33)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial.
  2. Title of document (in italics).
  3. Format (letter, manuscript, pamphlet…).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date. (if given).
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name (in italics). If no collection name, name of division where item is housed with no punctuation.
  6. Medium.
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bibliographic record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Keller, Helen. Helen Keller to John Hitz, August 29, 1893. Letter. From Library of Congress, The Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, 1862-1939. http://www.loc.gov/item/magbellbib004020 (accessed January 11, 2006).

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Maps and Charts

Maps are far more than just maps of cities and towns. They document historical places, events, and populations, as well as growth and changes over time. This map is from the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.141)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given, or person responsible for content).
  2. Title of document (in italics) [shorten to meaningful limits, ].
  3. Format (map, chart).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date.
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name (in italics). If no collection name, name of division where item is housed with no punctuation.
  6. Medium.
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bibliographic record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Ashmun, Jehudi. Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the Colony of Liberia. Map. Philadelphia: A. Finley, 1830. From Library of Congress, Map Collections. http://www.loc.gov/item/96680499 (accessed January 9, 2006).

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Newspapers

Historic newspapers provide a glimpse of historic time periods. The articles, as well as the advertising, are an appealing way to get a look at the regions of the country or the world and the issues of the day.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.188)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given; if no author is given, use title of Newspaper here instead in italics).
  2. Title of article (in quotes); Title of newspaper (if not used above) in italics.
  3. Format (leave blank if printed document).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date.
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name (in italics). If no collection name, name of division where item is housed with no punctuation.
  6. Medium.
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bibliographic record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
The Stars and Stripes, “Free Education While You Wait For Orders Home.” Dec. 6, 1918. From Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/item/sn88075768/1918-12-06/ed-1/ (accessed Feb. 10, 2012).

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Oral History Interviews

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.207)

Structure:

  1. Title of the interview in quotes
  2. Interviewer’s first name, last name (if available)
  3. Title of publication or Web site
  4. Date of publication
  5. Medium
  6. URL
  7. Accessed date (in parenthesis)

“Title of interview” by First Name Last Name of interviewer, Title of publication or Web site, Month, Day Year of publication, URL (accessed date).

Example:
“Gwendolyn M. Patton oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Montgomery, Alabama, 2011-06-01.” From Library of Congress, Civil Rights Oral History Project. Film. http://www.loc.gov/item/afc2010039_crhp0020/ (accessed Jan. 15, 2016).

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Photographs

Photographs and drawings appear in many of the Library of Congress digitized historical collections. This photograph from the Library's online collections shows casualties of war on the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 8.206)

Structure:

  1. Photographer’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given). [Include role after name, i.e. photographer.]
  2. “Photo Title.” [Include brackets if given in bibliographic record.]
  3. Format (photograph).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date (include c [circa] if given; if no date, use n.d.).
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name (in italics). If no collection name, name of division where item is housed with no punctuation.
  6. Medium.
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bibliographic record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
O’Sullivan, Timothy, photographer. “[Incidents of the war. A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, July 1863.]” Photograph. Washington, D.C.: Philip & Solomons, c1865. From Library of Congress: Selected Civil War Photographs, 1861-1865. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/cwp2003001110/PP (accessed January 9, 2006).

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Sound Recordings

This recording of Mrs. Ben Scott and Myrtle B. Wilkinson performing Haste to the Wedding is an example of Anglo-American dance music on the fiddle and tenor banjo recorded on October 31, 1939.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 8.205)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given) [include performer, composer, etc.].
  2. Title of album (in italics) (Title of a song in quotes, not italics).
  3. Format (sound recording).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date.
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name (in italics). If no collection name, name of division where item is housed with no punctuation.
  6. Medium (i.e. MP3, WAV).
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Scott, Mrs. Ben and Myrtle B. Wilkinson, performers. “Haste to the Wedding.” Sound recording. Turlock, CA: Sidney Robertson Cowell, October 31, 1939. From Library of Congress, California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties. MP3, WAV. http://www.loc.gov/item/afccc.a4227b4 (accessed January 9, 2006).

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General Format

Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-02-16 12:40:43

As The Chicago Manual of Style is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than for class papers, where necessary, CMOS guidelines will be supplemented with information from the student reference, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations and additions.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation style, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.

General CMOS Guidelines

  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, including block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions. 
  • For block quotations, which are also called extracts:
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked. 
    • CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
    • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.  
    • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
    • Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool. 
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. 
  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers. 
    • CMOS recommends you devise your own format but use consistency as your guide. 
      • For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below. 

Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
  • Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
  • Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.). 

Major Paper Sections

Title Page
  • According to Turabian style, class papers will either include a title page or include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines should your instructor or context require a title page:
    • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
    • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later. 
    • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
    • Double-space each line of the title page.

 

    Image Caption: CMOS Title Page

  • Different practices apply for theses and dissertation (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8th ed.]. 

Main Body
  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized. 
  • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name. 
    • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized. 
    • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
    • The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
    • Titles of plays should be italicized.
    • Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization.
      • For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To off-set the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to off-set the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.

In Flowers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought, Rose eloquently sums up his argument in the following quotation:

In a society of control, a politics of conduct is
    designed into the fabric of existence itself, into the
    organization of space, time, visibility, circuits of
    communication. And these enwrap each individual life
    decision and action—about labour [sic], purchases, debts,
    credits, lifestyle, sexual contracts and the like—in a web
    of incitements, rewards, current sanctions and foreboding 
    of future sanctions which serve to enjoin citizens to
    maintain particular types of control over their conduct.
    These assemblages which entail the securitization of
    identity are not unified, but dispersed, not hierarchical
    but rhizomatic, not totalized but connected in a web or
    relays and relations. (246)

References
  • Label the first page of your back matter, and your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author Date style). 
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry. 
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries. 
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry. 
  • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries. 
    • For two to three authors, write out all names. 
    • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations. 
    • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text. 
    • Write out publishers’ names in full. 
    • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable. 
    • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
    • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible. 
    • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).

Image Caption: CMOS References Page

Footnotes
  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper. 
  • In the text:
    • Note numbers are superscripted.
    • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash. 
  • In the notes themselves:
    • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).  
    • Lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. Place commentary after source documentation when a footnote contains both; separate commentary and documentation by a period. 
      • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
      • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range. 

For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper.

Headings

While CMOS does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, CMOS makes several recommendations.

  • Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
  • Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
  • Subheadings should begin on a new line.
  • Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
  • Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
  • Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
  • Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
  • Avoid ending subheadings with periods. 

Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.

Turabian Subheading Plan

Chicago Headings  

Level

Format

1

Centered, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization 

2

Centered, Regular Type, Headline-style Capitalization

3

Flush Left, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization  

4

Flush left, roman type, sentence-style capitalization

5

Run in at beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italic type, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period.

Here is an example of the five-level heading system:

Image Caption: CMOS Headings

 

Tables and Figures
  • Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
  • For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
  • Cite the source of the table and figure information with a “credit line” at the bottom of the table or figure and, if applicable, after the caption. The credit line should be distinguished from the caption by being enclosed in parenthesis or written in different type.
    • Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
    • Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by . . . ).
    • If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period. 

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS

Contributors’ names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

    1. Contributors’ Names, “Title of Resource,” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name, last edited date, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

    1. Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert,Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca, “General Format,” The Purdue OWL, last edited date, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Name, Contributor 1, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 (etc.) Name. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. Last edited date. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Author Date In-text Citation:

(Contributors’ Surnames year of publication.

(Clements et al. 2017).

Author Date References Page Citation:

Contributor 1 LastName, Contributor 1 FirstName, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca. 2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. Last edited October 12, 2017. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.

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