Writing The Results Section Of A Research Paper Psychology Apa

How to Write a Lab Report

Saul McLeod published 2011


Conducting a piece of research is a requirement for most psychology degree courses.

Of course, before you write up the report you have to research human behavior, and collect some data.  Final year students often find it difficult to choose a suitable research topic for their psychology lab report, and usually attempt to make things more complicated than they need to be.

Ask you supervisor for advice, but if in doubt, keep it simple, choose a memory experiment (you don't get extra marks for originality).  Remember to make sure your research in psychology adheres to ethical guidelines.  You will also be likely to write your paper according to APA style.


Ethical Considerations in Research

If the study involves any of the following, due consideration should be made about (1) whether to conduct the study, (2) how best to protect the participants’ rights.

Psychological or physical discomfort.

Invasion of privacy. If you are researching on private property, such as a shopping mall, you should seek permission.

Deception about the nature of the study or the participants’ role in it. Unless you are observing public behavior, participants should be volunteers and told what your research is about. If possible obtain informed consent. You should only withhold information if the research cannot be carried out any other way.

Research with children. In a school you will need the head teacher's consent and, if (s)he thinks it is advisable, the written consent of the children's’ parents/guardians. Testing children in a lab requires the written consent of parents/guardians.

Research with non-human animals. Experimentation with animals should only rarely be attempted. You must be trained to handle and care for the animals and ensure that their needs are met (food, water, good housing, exercise, gentle handling and protection from disturbance). Naturalistic observation poses fewer problems but still needs careful consideration; the animals may be disturbed especially where they are breeding or caring for young.

When conducting investigations, never:

    • Insult, offend or anger participants.

    • Make participants believe they may have harmed or upset someone else.

    • Break the law or encourage others to do it.

    • Contravene the Data Protection Act.

    • Copy tests or materials without permission of the copyright holder.

    • Make up data.

    • Copy other people’s work without crediting it.

    • Claim that somebody else’s wording is your own.

Infringement of any ethical guidelines may result in disqualification of the project.


Lab Report Format

Title page, abstract, references and appendices are started on separate pages (subsections from the main body of the report are not). Use double-line spacing of text, font size 12, and include page numbers.

The report should have a thread of argument linking the prediction in the introduction to the content in the discussion.


1. Title Page:

This must indicate what the study is about. It must include the IV & DV. It should not be written as a question.


2. Abstract: (you write this last)

The abstract comes at the beginning of your report but is written at the end.

The abstract provides a concise and comprehensive summary of a research report. Your style should be brief, but not using note form. Look at examples in journal articles. It should aim to explain very briefly (about 150 words) the following:

    • Start with a one/two sentence summary, providing the aim and rationale for the study.

    • Describe participants and setting: who, when, where, how many, what groups?

    • Describe the method: what design, what experimental treatment, what questionnaires, surveys or tests used.

    • Describe the major findings, which may include a mention of the statistics used and the significance levels, or simply one sentence summing up the outcome.

    • The final sentence(s) outline the studies 'contribution to knowledge' within the literature. What does it all mean? Mention implications of your findings if appropriate.


3. Introduction:

The purpose of the introduction is to explain where your hypothesis comes from. You must be explicit regarding how the research outlined links to the aims / hypothesis of your study.

    • Start with general theory, briefly introducing the topic.

    • Narrow down to specific and relevant theory and research. Two or three studies is sufficient.

    • There should be a logical progression of ideas which aids the flow of the report. This means the studies outlined should lead logically into your aims and hypotheses.

    • Do be concise and selective, avoid the temptation to include anything in case it is relevant (i.e. don't write a shopping list of studies).

    • Don’t turn this introduction into an essay.

    • Don’t spell out all the details of a piece of research unless it is one you are replicating.

    • Do include any relevant critical comment on research, but take care that your aims remain consistent with the literature review. If your hypothesis is unlikely, why are you testing it?

AIMS: The aims should not appear out of thin air, the preceding review of psychological literature should lead logically into the aims.

    • Write a paragraph explaining what you plan to investigate and why. Use previously cited research to explain your expectations. Later these expectations are formally stated as the hypotheses.

    • Do understand that aims are not the same as the hypotheses.

HYPOTHESES: State the alternate hypothesis and make it is clear, concise and includes the variables under investigation.


4. Method

  • Assume the reader has no knowledge of what you did and ensure that he/she would be able to replicate (i.e. copy) your study exactly by what you write in this section.

  • Write in the past tense.

  • Don’t justify or explain in the Method (e.g. why you choose a particular sampling method), just report what you did.

  • Only give enough detail for someone to replicate experiment - be concise in your writing.

USE THE FOLLOWING SUBHEADING:

Design –

State the experimental design, the independent variable label and name the different conditions/levels. Name the dependent variables and make sure it's operationalized. Identify any controls used, e.g. counterbalancing, control of extraneous variables.

Participants –

Identify the target population (refer to a geographic location) and type of sample. Say how you obtained your sample (e.g. opportunity sample). Give relevant details, e.g. how many, age range.

Materials –

Describe the materials used, e.g. word lists, surveys, computer equipment etc. You do not need to include wholesale replication of materials – instead include a ‘sensible’ (illustrate) level of detail.

Procedure –

Describe the precise procedure you followed when carrying out your research i.e. exactly what you did. Describe in sufficient detail to allow for replication of findings. Be concise in your description and omit extraneous / trivial details. E.g. you don't need to include details regarding instructions, debrief, record sheets etc.


5. Results:

The results section of a paper usually present the descriptive statistics followed by inferential statistics. Avoid interpreting the results (save this for the discussion).

Make sure the results are presented clearly and concisely. A table can be used to display descriptive statistics if this makes the data easier to understand. DO NOT include any raw data.

Use APA Style

  • Numbers reported to 2d.p. (incl. 0 before the decimal if < 1.00, e.g. “0.51”). The exceptions to this rule: Numbers which can never exceed 1.0 (e.g. p-values, r-values): report to 3d.p. and do not include 0 before the decimal place, e.g. “.001”.

  • Percentages and degrees of freedom: report as whole numbers.

  • Statistical symbols that are not Greek letters should be italicised (e.g. M, SD, t, X, F, p, d).

  • Include spaces either side of equals sign.

  • When reporting 95% CIs (confidence intervals), upper and lower limits are given inside square brackets, e.g. “95% CI [73.37, 102.23]”

What information to include:

    • The type of statistical test being used.

    • Means, SDs & 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each IV level. If you have four to 20 numbers to present, a well-presented table is best, APA style.

    • Clarification of whether no difference or a significant difference was found the direction of the difference (only where significant).

    • The mean difference and 95% CIs (confidence intervals).

    • The effect size (this does not appear on the SPSS output).

For example - “A ____ test revealed there was a significant (not a significant) difference in the scores for IV level 1 (M =___, SD =___ CI [____, ____]) and IV level 2 (M =___, SD =___ CI [____, ____]) conditions; t(__)=____, p = ____”


6. Discussion:

    • Outline your findings in plain English (no statistical jargon) and relate your results to your hypothesis, e.g. is it supported or rejected?

    • Compare you results to background materials from the introduction section. Are your results similar or different? Discuss why/why not.

    • How confident can we be in the results? Acknowledge limitations, but only if they can explain the result obtained. If the study has found a reliable effect be very careful suggesting limitations as you are doubting your results. Unless you can think of any confounding variable that can explain the results instead of the IV, it would be advisable to leave the section out.

    • Suggest constructive ways to improve your study if appropriate.

    • What are the implications of your findings? Say what your findings mean for the way people behave in the real world.

    • Suggest an idea for further researched triggered by your study, something in the same area, but not simply an improved version of yours. Perhaps you could base this on a limitation of your study.

    • Concluding paragraph – Finish with a statement of your findings and the key points of the discussion (e.g. interpretation and implications), in no more than 3 or 4 sentences.


7. References:

The reference section is the list of all the sources cited in the essay (in alphabetical order). It is not a bibliography (a list of the books you used).

In simple terms every time you refer to a name (and date) of a psychologist you need to reference the original source of the information.

If you have been using textbooks this is easy as the references are usually at the back of the book and you can just copy them down. If you have been using websites then you may have a problem as they might not provide a reference section for you to copy.

References need to be set out APA style:

Books

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Journal Articles

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers

A simple way to write your reference section is use Google scholar. Just type the name and date of the psychologist in the search box and click on the 'cite' link.

Next, copy and paste the APA reference into the reference section of your essay.

Once again remember that references need to be in alphabetical order according to surname.


How to reference this article:

McLeod, S. A. (2011). Psychology research report. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/research-report.html

Writing the Experimental Report: Methods, Results, and Discussion

Summary:

Written for undergraduate students and new graduate students in psychology (experimental), this handout provides information on writing in psychology and on experimental report and experimental article writing.

Contributors:Dana Lynn Driscoll, Aleksandra Kasztalska
Last Edited: 2013-03-11 09:59:00

Method section

Your method section provides a detailed overview of how you conducted your research. Because your study methods form a large part of your credibility as a researcher and writer, it is imperative that you be clear about what you did to gather information from participants in your study.

With your methods section, as with the sections above, you want to walk your readers through your study almost as if they were a participant. What happened first? What happened next?

The method section includes the following sub-sections.

I. Participants: Discuss who was enrolled in your experiment. Include major demographics that have an impact on the results of the experiment (i.e. if race is a factor, you should provide a breakdown by race). The accepted term for describing a person who participates in research studies is a participant not a subject.

II. Apparatus and materials: The apparatus is any equipment used during data collection (such as computers or eye-tracking devices). Materials include scripts, surveys, or software used for data collection (not data analysis). It is sometimes necessary to provide specific examples of materials or prompts, depending on the nature of your study.

III. Procedure: The procedure includes the step-by-step how of your experiment. The procedure should include:

  • A description of the experimental design and how participants were assigned conditions.
  • Identification of your independent variable(s) (IV), dependent variable(s) (DV), and control variables. Give your variables clear, meaningful names so that your readers are not confused.
  • Important instructions to participants.
  • A step-by-step listing in chronological order of what participants did during the experiment.

Results section

The results section is where you present the results of your research-both narrated for the readers in plain English and accompanied by statistics.

Note: Depending on the requirements or the projected length of your paper, sometimes the results are combined with the discussion section.

Organizing Results

Continue with your story in the results section. How do your results fit with the overall story you are telling? What results are the most compelling? You want to begin your discussion by reminding your readers once again what your hypotheses were and what your overall story is. Then provide each result as it relates to that story. The most important results should go first.

Preliminary discussion: Sometimes it is necessary to provide a preliminary discussion in your results section about your participant groups. In order to convince your readers that your results are meaningful, you must first demonstrate that the conditions of the study were met. For example, if you randomly assigned subjects into groups, are these two groups comparable? You can't discuss the differences in the two groups until you establish that the two groups can be compared.

Provide information on your data analysis: Be sure to describe the analysis you did. If you are using a non-conventional analysis, you also need to provide justification for why you are doing so.

Presenting Results: Bem (2006) recommends the following pattern for presenting findings:

  • Remind readers of the conceptual hypotheses or questions you are asking
  • Remind readers of behaviors measured or operations performed
  • Provide the answer/result in plain English
  • Provide the statistic that supports your plain English answer
  • Elaborate or qualify the overall conclusion if necessary

Writers new to psychology and writing with statistics often dump numbers at their readers without providing a clear narration of what those numbers mean. Please see our Writing with Statistics handout for more information on how to write with statistics.

Discussion section

Your discussion section is where you talk about what your results mean and where you wrap up the overall story you are telling. This is where you interpret your findings, evaluate your hypotheses or research questions, discuss unexpected results, and tie your findings to the previous literature (discussed first in your literature review). Your discussion section should move from specific to general.

Here are some tips for writing your discussion section.

  • Begin by providing an interpretation of your results: what is it that you have learned from your research?
  • Discuss each hypotheses or research question in more depth.
  • Do not repeat what you have already said in your results—instead, focus on adding new information and broadening the perspective of your results to you reader.
  • Discuss how your results compare to previous findings in the literature. If there are differences, discuss why you think these differences exist and what they could mean.
  • Briefly consider your study's limitations, but do not dwell on its flaws.
  • Consider also what new questions your study raises, what questions your study was not able to answer, and what avenues future research could take in this area.

 

Example: Here is how this works.

Briel begins her discussion section by providing a sentence about her hypotheses—what she expected to find. She immediately follows this with what she did find and then her interpretation of those findings. After discussing each of her major results, she discusses larger implications of her work and avenues for future research.

 

References section

References should be in standard APA format. Please see our APA Formatting guide for specific instructions.

Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *